Category Archives: Mainstream Media

Broadcast Television, Radio and Newspapers

Stupid Questions

Stupid Question

What do you do when a reporter asks you a stupid question?   If you are ever holding an interview or news conference, and someone asks you a question that you consider “stupid,” do not call-out the reporter.   Doing so will make you appear too defensive and even hostile.  You will also make yourself an enemy, because no reporter wants to be chastised during a news briefing.  Often a stupid question results in  what some may consider a stupid answer.

If the question calls for conclusions based on information you do not yet have or events that have not yet occurred, then the question is “hypothetical.”  In that case a proper response would be;  “I’m only going to deal with the facts, I don’t want to get involved in a hypothetical situation.”

If a reporter asks a question that indicates that the reporter doesn’t fully understand the issue, do not chastise the reporter.  Instead offer to provide background information, material or reference sources that will help the reporter have a better understanding of the issue.  Offering background information shows the reporter that you are sincerely trying to provide accurate information.   

You don’t even have to make it obvious to reporters that they don’t know the subject well enough to ask thoughtful questions.  Instead, make a general statement to all of the reporters such as, “I realize this is a complex issue to many of us.  If it makes it easier for you, I have a lot of background information that I will be happy to make available to any or all of you.” 

Just remember, there are no stupid questions, only stupid answers.

Better yet, when you are asked a question that you consider stupid, just answer the question the way you wish that it were asked.

Russell Ruffin is author of “Media Survival,” and a veteran TV News reporter who conducts News Media Relations Training for public and private agencies and businesses.

Police Need to Utilize Social Media at least as effective as their detractors

Law Enforcement Officers and Agencies across the nation are almost always unfairly vilified in some of the Main Stream Media Outlets during coverage of officer involved shootings. The False Narrative of “Hands Up, Don’t Shoot,” during the 2014 Ferguson, MO protests gave many the impression that an officer had shot and killed (without provocation) an unarmed man.   Although the media later corrected the narrative and acknowledged that “Hands Up, Don’t Shoot,” never happened, many in the public and media still adhere to that false narrative.  That is precisely why Law Enforcement needs to effectively embrace Social Media to ensure that the facts are accurately reported. When possible, Law Enforcement should uses Social Media to let the public know why and how they react to being pelted by rocks and bottles and other violence.

Ensure Your Media Message Gets Reported

What do you do when you get a call from a reporter who needs to schedule an interview with you for a quick sound bite or quote on some subject or event?  You may be able to squeeze the reporter into your busy schedule for a face-to-face sit-down interview, but you probably won’t have time to prepare a formal detailed press release.

Of course, not everyone who is interviewed by a reporter has to compose a press release, but handing the reporter some typed out facts that you have prepared will definitely provide them a better understanding of your answers or position.

I’ve had countless newsmakers proclaim, “the reporter interviewed me for more than an hour, and when the story ended up in the paper it was completely wrong.”  Some tell of submitting to lengthy TV interviews only to have the least significant sound bites end up on the air.  One of the common complaints about reporters is, “They always misconstrue everything I say.”

While it may seem that reporters are just “making up information,” the reality is that sometimes something just gets lost in the translation.

When newsmakers submit to interviews, they have to count on reporters to take accurate notes and have a sufficient understanding of what is being said.   Often, when a reporter gets a story wrong, it isn’t because they are being unfair or dishonest, it’s because they were unaware of all the facts.  But how can a reporter get a story wrong if you’ve answered every one of their questions?

Reporters only ask questions for which they feel they need answers or comments.  Sometimes a reporter goes into an interview with a misunderstanding of one or more facts.  They don’t bother to ask you to verify information that they assume is correct.  You don’t know they have a misunderstanding of the facts, therefore you don’t know to correct their misinformation.  Hence, there is no meeting of the minds.  The reporter writes the story based on what he or she believes to be the facts, only to discover they didn’t have all the fact.

For television news, I once covered a Colorado avalanche in which my photographer managed to capture graphic footage of the giant snow slide coming down the mountain and then completely burying our news camera.   One news outlet erroneously reported that my photographer had been buried alive while shooting the footage.  In reality, my photographer and I had actually managed to scramble to safety before the avalanche reached us.  How could a reporter have made such a mistake?  He assumed that because the camera that captured the amazing footage was buried, the photographer holding the camera must have been buried with it.  He didn’t realize we had left the camera mounted on a tripod before we made our escape.   Some reporters just make false assumptions.  Some reporters don’t ask the right questions.

To reduce the possibility of falling victim to false assumptions, you should, at the very least, prepare a brief “Fact Sheet,” for every single interview or news conference you submit to.  This fact sheet should list the basic information regarding the event or news story, the who, what, when, where, why and how.  Your list doesn’t even have to consist of complete sentences, just basic information, almost like reporter’s notes.

Reporters will appreciate that you have provided information without them having to quickly write down every single detail.  You are actually helping the reporter take accurate notes.  Your fact sheet will be something the reporter can refer to as he or she is preparing their news copy.

For reporters who may be unfamiliar with certain events or subjects, your fact sheet can become their road map.  I would even suggest giving the fact sheet to the reporter before the interview, so that they will have a better understanding of your position before questioning you.

A simple fact sheet will ensure that both you and the reporter are on the same page.


Sound Bites: An Effective Tool to Make Your Point!

If you really want to make a point in a conversation, interview, news conference or speech, think in terms of “Sound Bites.”  Back in the 80’s an effective sound bite delivered at the right place and at the right time, helped bring down the Berlin Wall.

Watch Russell Ruffin at the White House for this tip.  Take a minute to come up with an 8 to 15 second sound bite that will not just help you make your point, but will be something your audience will remember.

Sorry to Wake You

Those Middle of the Night
Phone Calls from Reporters

If you are like most Public Information Officers, you get calls at all hours from reporters and editors looking for that one piece of information that you and only you can provide. If your agency is structured like most, there are only a select few, who may speak to the media for your agency. While it’s a compliment to you that your agency has trusted you with that responsibility, it is often an overwhelming task. Continue reading Sorry to Wake You

Officer Involved Shooting News Briefings


Officer-Involved Shooting
Fill-in-the Blank News  Briefing

Highly Publicized officer involved-shooting incidents in Louisiana, Minnesota and Missouri have demonstrated how important it is to respond quickly to the media.  My training partner and I were in Ferguson, MO several times during protests following the events that led to the death of Michael Brown.
Diamond ReynoldsWhile an effective news briefing will help law enforcement build credibility with the community, it won’t solve historic differences involving social issues.  Nonetheless, being accessible to the media with current and accurate information will go a long way toward projecting an image of openness and honesty.


 Breaking News Exercises

Breaking News logo

What would YOU have done differently?
body covered

Maintain Objectivity

In your early briefings, as a PIO you cannot assume that the officer is at fault, nor can you assume that the suspect is at fault; that determination will be made once the case is thoroughly investigated.  Your job is to give a brief statement to media.  You don’t want to speculate, draw any conclusions or answer any hypothetical questions.  You want to appear almost as a neutral and objective third party.  You should take out a pen and paper and write out a few talking points.  This is the information you will release to the media.

First Briefing Talking Points

  1. Why police were called: disturbance at convenience store.
  2. Responding officer encountered suspect, there was a scuffle, shots were fired.
  3. Suspect and officer transferred to hospital.
  4. We are now interviewing witnesses.

Give Them Something to Talk About

Below is how your talking points will turn into a brief statement to the media:

Opening Statement

At  12:30 this afternoon one of our officers was responding to a 911 call regarding a disturbance at the (business) at (address) in (city).

When the officer began to question a suspect he encountered near the scene there was a physical scuffle in which shots were fired.

Both the suspect and the officer have been transported to the hospital.  The suspect sustained at least one gun-shot wound; the officer had cuts and bruises.  Their conditions are unknown.

We are now actively involved in the investigation, as we gather more information, we will hold another briefing.

Answer Their Questions

NewsCameraPeopleNote that your opening statement consisted of only about 30 seconds worth of information.  You want your tone and your words to be as objective as possible.  Although your agency is a big part of the story, you want to convey a feeling of objectivity.  The media will have follow-up questions. Be sure to those take questions; even if you have little or no information to add, you MUST take questions.  If you don’t take questions, you will be accused of being too vague.

Possible Question:  What was the nature of the disturbance the officer was responding to?

Answer:  “The call came in through our 911 dispatch-center.  The caller indicated there was some type of disturbance involving a customer inside the Jackson Convenience Store.  We are still gathering information about that initial call.  I don’t have anything further on the nature of that disturbance, but as soon as we know more, I will let you know.”

Possible Question:  “You said there was a ‘disturbance.’  Was that a hold-up?”

Answer:  “I don’t have that information.  Right now our detectives are there interviewing witnesses and looking for other possible witnesses.  We will have more information for you at our next briefing, which will probably be in the next couple of hours.  I will have to get back with you on that.”

Possible Question:  “You said there was a scuffle with the officer; can you be a little more specific about the scuffle?”

Answer:   “Right now we are still interviewing the officer and other possible witnesses.  We should know more by the time we hold our next briefing.”

Possible Question:  “You said in your briefing that ‘shots were fired’, who fired those shots?”

Answer:  “We are very early into this investigation.  As I said, we are still interviewing witnesses, so we are still gathering those facts.”

Possible Question:  “You said the officer had cuts and bruises, but the suspect had a gunshot wound.  Can we assume that the officer fired the weapon?”

Answer:  “I don’t want to speculate on what happened.  As we gather more evidence and information, we will have that for you.  Again, this all happened just over an hour ago, so right now we are very early into this investigation.”

Possible Question: “What is the race of the suspect and what is the race of the officer?”

Answer:  “The suspect is a black male, the officer is a white male.”

Possible Question:  “Do you have a name and age for the suspect?”

Answer:  “I don’t have an ID or an exact age for the suspect.  Preliminary information is that he appears to be a young adult.  As I said, I will have more information for you when we hold our next briefing, within the next couple of hours.”

Possible Question:  “What is the name of the officer and has he ever been involved in a shooting before.”

Answer:  “Obviously, I don’t have a lot of information because we are at the beginning of the investigation.  I know you have a lot of questions and believe me, so do we.  Again, we will have more for you at our next briefing.” 

Setting the Tone for Coverage

LiveTruck180Even though, you gave the media very little information, you stuck around long enough to field questions from reporters.  You answered in a very professional and objective manner.

Your first briefing has now helped to set the tone for news coverage.  Your talking points are now the reporters’ talking points.  As television reporters conduct dozens of “Live Shots” for their breaking news coverage, they are quoting you and airing your sound bites.  If you had not held a briefing, reporters would have gotten their information from individuals at the scene who might not have credible information.

Round 2:  Preparing for your Second News Briefing

After another two to three hours you have fresh information and are ready to hold your second briefing with reporters.  You have learned that the unidentified suspect has died.  You have also learned that your officer, who has been treated for non-life-threatening injuries, has not yet been released, pending a review of X-rays.

Investigators have told you the initial 911 call was from the clerk at the Jackson Convenience Store who stated that a man had shoplifted several items from the store.  The clerk stated that when he confronted the man, the man placed his hand on the clerk’s neck, shoved him away and then exited the store.

Your investigators have shared with you only the basic information they obtained from interviewing the officer.  As the responding officer was approaching the store, he encountered an individual matching the description of the suspect.  The officer stated that as he began to question the suspect, the suspect attacked him.  The officer stated that the suspect struck him in the face several times as the suspect attempted to pull the officer’s weapon from its holster.  The officer stated that during the scuffle, both were fighting for possession of the weapon.  You know several shots were fired and the suspect was struck at least once.

You have been told by your superiors that because an officer is involved in the shooting, protocol dictates that the case be turned over to the county district attorney.  That transfer of jurisdiction will take place tomorrow, once the evidence and witness statements have been turned over to the district attorney.

Monitor News Coverage

News SetYou have also monitored news coverage of the incident and you know that people are raising questions about the racial make-up of your department; it is mostly white, while the city population is mostly black.  There have also been media reports of a long-standing mistrust of police by the black community.

Those media reports are helpful, because they have given you a heads-up on some of the issues you will be questioned about at your next briefing.  You now have time to prepare for them.

Again, you write out a few of your talking points:

Second Briefing Talking Points:

  1. Unidentified suspect has died from injuries.
  2. Officer was treated for non-life-threatening injuries, not yet released from hospital.
  3. Original complaint: shoplifting, followed by assault of the store clerk.
  4. Officer stated that when he encountered the suspect, the suspect began attacking the officer in an attempt to take the officer’s weapon. Several shots were fired.  The suspect was struck at least once.
  5. As a matter of protocol, officer-involved shootings are turned over to the district attorney; that will take place tomorrow.
  6. You gather information about your agency’s minority hiring policy. (You won’t bring this up in your opening statement, but you will release it during the question/answer period)

Below is how your talking points turn into a brief statement to the media:

Opening Statement at Second News Conference

Earlier today one of our officers responded to a strong-arm robbery at the(name of business) at (address) here in (name of city).

Witnesses are still being interviewed but it appears there was a scuffle between the officer and a suspect he encountered near the business.  Several shots were fired and both the officer and the suspect were transported to the hospital.  At 2:30 this afternoon the Medical Examiner’s office pronounced the unidentified suspect dead.

The officer has been treated for cuts and bruises and is awaiting release from the hospital.

The officer stated to us that as he attempted to question the suspect, the suspect suddenly attacked him, striking him in the face as the suspect attempted to remove the officer’s holstered weapon.  The officer’s statement to investigators is that several shots were fired during the struggle. 

Because our detectives are still at the scene interviewing witnesses, we don’t have all the details.  As we get more information we will be releasing it to you.

Because an officer is involved, we will be turning this case over to (another agency).  As a matter of protocol, when there is an officer-involved shooting, the case is handled by (another agency).

I will try to answer as many questions and I can, but please be aware, we are still gathering information.

NewsConfMic networks

Your opening statement has provided the media and public with the additional information that the suspect is dead.  You have also released a few more details about the original call and the attack on the officer that resulted in the shooting.  As with most briefings, you should entertain questions following your opening statement.  Even though you will have very few details to add to your statement you have to give the media an opportunity to ask their questions.

Possible Question:  “What is the age of the dead suspect?”

Answer:  “So far we have not positively identified him, and we don’t have an age.”

Possible Question:  “Can you tell us more about the shooting?  How many times was the suspect shot and where on his body was he shot?”

Answer:  “We know that several shots were fired.  I don’t have an exact count, but I do know that the suspect had at least one gunshot wound.  Beyond that, I don’t have any further information.  As we gather that information we will be releasing it to you.”

Possible Question:  “You referred to the initial call to police as a “strong-arm” robbery.  Can you be more specific?”

Answer:  “A strong-arm robbery is the use of physical force in the commission of a crime.  Witnesses have stated to us that the suspect had picked up several items and was walking out the door without paying for them, when the clerk approached him.  At that point, witnesses stated the suspect turned around exchanged some words with the clerk, and then pushed the clerk away before exiting the store.”

Possible Question:  “So you are saying this all resulted from a shoplifting incident?”

Answer:  “The original call came in as a shoplifting complaint that escalated to an assault on the store clerk and then an assault on the responding officer.”

Possible Question:  “What were the items the suspect shoplifted?”

Answer:  “I don’t have that information; our detectives are still at the scene interviewing possible witnesses.”

Possible Question:  “How long after the shoplifting did the shooting happen?”

Answer:  “We don’t have an exact timeline, but we believe it to have been around 15 minutes.”

Possible Question:  “Was the clerk at the store injured?”

Answer:  “The clerk stated that the suspect grabbed his neck and pushed him backwards.  The clerk told officers he did not require medical attention.”

Possible Question:  “Some witnesses are saying the suspect had his hands up and was surrendering, but the officer shot him anyway.  Can you tell me what you know about that?”

Answer:  “Indications we have are that the officer was attacked and was defending himself.  We are still interviewing witnesses and we encourage anyone with any information about the case to contact us.”

Possible Question:  “It is our understanding that the vast majority of officers are on the force are white and very few officers are black, while the vast majority of the residents here in the city are black.  Is that the case?”

Answer:  “I’m not sure of the exact racial make-up of our department, I can get that information for you.  I do know that, the majority of the force is white.  I can also tell you that we are an equal opportunity employer and in our recruiting, we actively reach out to the entire community.”

You Are the Reliable Source of Information

While the information you have released about the actual shooting remains limited, at least you are giving the media and the public a better understanding of what happened.  You have presented information about the case in a fair and objective manner and your agency has become the public’s main source for information.  Your quotes are now being published and broadcast.  You have given the media more to talk about.

When you delay or refuse to talk with the media, you force reporters to seek information from other, sometimes unreliable, sources.  Releasing information to the media is like controlling the flow of water from a faucet.  As long as you keep the spigot open, reporters will be there to gather and report the facts.  Once you close the spigot, reporters will go elsewhere to fill the void.  Additionally, monitoring your news outlets is essential; because it lets you know how the media is covering the incident and what the community is saying about it.

Don’t have time to prepare a News Release? No problem, give them a simple “Fact Sheet”

Often mistakes are made and facts are mis-reported, because of simple honest mistakes. The reporter may have had a misunderstanding of the facts. You didn’t know they had a misunderstanding or you would have clarified it for them. They didn’t know they were wrong so they didn’t ask you for clarification. What’s the answer? Preparing a formal news release would certainly help, but you don’t always have time to create a release. No problem. Prepare a simple Fact Sheet to reinforce your verbal message and to help them stay on track with the facts.